Foundational AI has opened up vast possibilities for social and economic advancement, but it also carries inherent risks. As the development of artificial intelligence accelerates, especially with the introduction of groundbreaking models like ChatGPT4, it is crucial to explore the […]
Foundational AI has opened up vast possibilities for social and economic advancement, but it also carries inherent risks. As the development of artificial intelligence accelerates, especially with the introduction of groundbreaking models like ChatGPT4, it is crucial to explore the potential benefits while being mindful of the potential harms.
According to leading financial institutions like Goldman Sachs and McKinsey, these large language models (LLMs) have the potential to revolutionize various sectors, including customer operations, marketing, software engineering, and research and development. The positive impact on worldwide GDP and productivity growth is estimated to be substantial. However, alongside these promising prospects, it is essential to address the risks associated with foundational AI models.
For instance, LLMs are trained on existing data that incorporates societal biases and discrimination. This data can inadvertently perpetuate harm by providing information that can be misused, such as instructions for illegal activities. Furthermore, there is a pressing need to protect personal privacy and prevent LLMs from revealing sensitive information about individuals. Misuse of LLMs can also lead to an increase in criminal activities and the spread of misinformation, exacerbating existing risks. Additionally, language barriers may contribute to exclusion if LLMs are not available in certain languages.
To mitigate these risks and maximize the benefits of AI, international cooperation is crucial. Governments worldwide are already taking steps to regulate AI and foster responsible governance. However, achieving a delicate balance between effective regulation and fostering innovation is a complex task. International collaboration can play a pivotal role in guiding domestic AI governance efforts.
Trade agreements and international economic forums have become platforms for collaboration in AI governance. Free trade agreements (FTAs) and digital economy agreements (DEAs) include commitments that enhance access to AI technologies while ensuring appropriate governance. These agreements aim to foster cross-border data flows, avoid restrictive data localization requirements, and establish standards for AI. They also promote cooperation and alignment between countries in areas like AI standards and mutual recognition agreements.
Prominent economic forums like the G7 and the U.S.-EU Trade and Technology Council (TTC), along with organizations like the OECD and the Forum for Cooperation on Artificial Intelligence (FCAI), facilitate discussions and collaboration among governments, industries, and civil society. These platforms play a vital role in developing international cooperation in AI. Additionally, efforts to establish international AI standards through global standards development organizations, such as the International Organization for Standardization/International Electrotechnical Commission (ISO/IEC), are imperative for fostering collaboration.
While progress has been made in incorporating AI-focused commitments into trade agreements and economic forums, further development is necessary to address the opportunities and risks associated with foundational AI models like LLMs. Trade policies can play a crucial role in advancing AI governance by incorporating commitments from AI-focused forums and standard-setting bodies. The FCAI provides an essential space to tackle cutting-edge AI issues and explore new avenues for collaboration.
Q: What are LLMs?
A: LLMs refer to large language models, such as ChatGPT4, that are developed for artificial intelligence applications.
Q: What risks do LLMs pose?
A: LLMs can amplify existing risks, like misinformation and privacy concerns, while introducing new risks, such as exclusion and increased criminal activities.
Q: How can international cooperation address AI risks?
A: International cooperation facilitates the exchange of AI governance experiences, addresses extraterritorial impacts, and broadens global access to computing power and data necessary for AI development.
Q: What commitments do trade agreements include?
A: Trade agreements prioritize cross-border data flows, avoid data localization requirements, and encourage collaboration on AI standards and mutual recognition agreements.
Q: Which organizations promote international cooperation in AI?
A: The G7, TTC, OECD, FCAI, and global standards development organizations like ISO/IEC actively support international collaboration in AI governance.